fish has high nutritional value and delicious taste. It is a delicacy on people’s table. However, in hot weather, bacteria are easy to breed. If fish are not stored properly, they will infect bacteria. These bacteria will convert histidine in fish meat into histamine. Once eating fish with high histamine content, it will cause histamine poisoning in human body. So what is histamine? How to avoid histamine poisoning? What is
histamine is a kind of biogenic amine, which widely exists in human tissues. When the body is stimulated by physical and chemical, it will cause the cells containing histamine to degranulate and release histamine. After binding with histamine receptor on target cells, it will produce biological effects, including a series of allergic symptoms such as telangiectasia, blood pressure drop, bronchospasm, headache, diarrhea, rash and so on. Besides histamine in the body, some foods also contain histamine. The main source of histamine in food is fish. Histamine in fish is produced by the degradation of free histidine in fish by histidine decarboxylase secreted by bacteria. Why does
easily lead to histamine poisoning?
can cause telangiectasia, increased permeability and bronchoconstriction once the human body ingests too much histamine, resulting in a series of toxic symptoms similar to the body’s allergic reaction, including blushing, headache, palpitation, chest tightness, blood pressure changes and even shock, which may be life-threatening in severe cases. Once the symptoms of histamine poisoning appear, it is necessary to prompt emesis, anti allergy and other symptomatic treatment. Compared with livestock and poultry meat,
fish are more prone to spoilage. Once the fish is dead, the enzymes contained in their tissues will cause autolysis of fish body and the bacteria will multiply rapidly. The decarboxylase secreted by some bacteria can decarboxylate amino acids to produce biogenic amines. Histamine is one of the most toxic biogenic amines. The content of histamine is related to the freshness of fish. When the fish is not fresh or rotten, the bacteria that pollute the fish increase and produce more histamine. Chub mackerel,
, mackerel, mackerel, bonito, saury, mackerel, green fish and sardine are rich in free histidine and histamine producing microorganisms. Under suitable conditions, histamine is highly prone to histamine and belongs to high histamine fish. How can
avoid histamine poisoning? Keep the fish fresh. Even if the rotten fish is heated, it may still lead to histamine poisoning. Try to avoid eating fish food that is not fresh or rotten. If it needs to be stored, it should also be stored in a low temperature environment. At low temperature, the bacteria grow slowly and decarboxylase activity is also low, which is conducive to slow down the decay process and histamine production. Generally, slow thawing at 0 ℃ ~ 4 ℃ is beneficial to reduce histamine production and maintain the tissue structure of fish, reduce juice loss and maintain good taste. For the red meat fish with green skin and easy to produce histamine, the fish body should be washed thoroughly before cooking to remove the fish head, viscera and blood clots, and then cut the fish in half and soak it in cold water for several hours. Adding a little vinegar during cooking can reduce the histamine content of fish by more than 65%. Patients with allergic diseases such as
and people who are taking antihypertensive drugs and antidepressants should avoid eating such fish as far as possible. The above content of
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