experts interviewed: Hao Fengtong, director of occupational disease and poisoning Medicine Department of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital; Song Xin, nutritionist of Nutrition Department of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, has different occupations, different living environment and habits, and different damage to health. So, how to recuperate with diet? In this issue, “life times” interviewed occupational disease experts and dieticians for advice.
phospholipid food is very necessary.
programmers, editors, reporters and other mental workers work indoors for a long time, which is easy to cause brain cell fatigue, and over time produce dizziness, insomnia, memory decline and other symptoms of neurasthenia. However, long-time sedentary work can reduce energy consumption and lead to lipid metabolism disorders, such as hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, osteoarthritis and other chronic diseases. Mental workers should pay attention to the intake of adequate carbohydrates, all kinds of coarse cereals, such as rice, flour, Cereals, especially breakfast. Increase the proportion of protein, such as soybean, milk, egg or fish, lean beef, shrimp, etc.; lecithin is the most abundant lipid in the brain, so phospholipid food should be added, such as soybean, peanut kernel, walnut, sesame, etc.; the supply of multiple vitamins and eating more fruits and vegetables, such as vitamin A, vitamin B1 and nicotinic acid, is essential for improving eyesight and ensuring carbon hydrate metabolism.
noise exposure to
mostly supplement copper, iron and zinc
people engaged in riveting, decoration, power station, road construction and other occupations, long-term and strong noise is not only easy to cause hearing problems, but also may bring symptoms such as tachycardia, poor digestion and so on. Therefore, we should ensure the intake of high-quality protein and multi vitamins in diet, and eat foods rich in vitamin B1, B2, B6 and vitamin C, which can also help to reduce mental stress and fatigue. Also eat food rich in copper, iron, zinc and other trace elements, such as animal liver, coarse grain, nuts and so on.
radiation exposure to
fruits and vegetables can not do without
. For some power plants, nuclear industry, radiation operators, radiation can cause ionization and excitation of substances and molecules in human body, and eventually develop into radiation injury. Excessive accumulation of radiation can easily lead to hematologic diseases and cancer. Song Xin suggested that personnel exposed to ionizing radiation should ensure sufficient energy, especially pay attention to the intake of high-quality protein, such as meat, eggs, milk, yogurt; oil rich in essential fatty acids and oleic acid should be selected to reduce the sensitivity of radiation damage, such as sunflower seed oil, soybean oil, corn oil; Carbohydrates account for 60% – 65% of energy, and fruits with good radiation protection effect and rich in fructose and glucose should be selected appropriately, such as apple and litchi.
dust exposure to
eat more Qingchang food
generally speaking, mineral dust is the most likely to cause pneumoconiosis, inhaled dust will deposit too much, resulting in pulmonary fiber calcification. People engaged in this kind of work should pay attention to eating some food that can remove dust and clear the lung, such as Auricularia, pig blood, fungi, etc. Auricularia auricula contains plant gum, which can absorb the dust left in human digestive tract and excrete it from the body. When the plasma protein in pig blood is decomposed by gastric acid, a kind of detoxification and bowel clearing substance will be produced, and harmful dust will be discharged from the body. Hao Fengtong pointed out that although teachers and sanitation workers are not exposed to mineral dust, it is also important to clear the lung and detoxify. Pay attention to wear masks and check lung function regularly.
lead exposure to
high-quality protein should not be lack of
Hao Fengtong pointed out that workers engaged in smelting, printing, welding and other industries may inhale lead heavy metals, causing lead poisoning, resulting in nervous system damage and disorder of hemoglobin synthesis and other pathological changes. Song Xin suggested that we should pay attention to adequate protein intake. Protein supply accounts for 14% – 15% of the total heat energy. Common foods include beans, milk and eggs. Vitamin B1, B12 and folic acid supplement also have similar effects. However, it is necessary to limit the intake of fat, and the energy supply ratio should not exceed 25%. High fat diet may lead to the increase of lead absorption in the small intestine. In addition, pectin, vitamin C and dietary fiber in fruits and vegetables can also reduce intestinal lead absorption.
moderate increase red meat
farmers, construction workers and other manual workers, energy consumption is huge, shoulder heavy, has direct damage to the muscle and skeletal system. In addition, unreasonable working posture is also a kind of physical damage. Therefore, adequate energy should be provided in diet to ensure grain intake, and fat intake such as red meat should be appropriately increased, such as eating more beef. Also pay attention to the supplement of calcium and vitamin D, eat more fish, eggs, dairy products, etc., to help strengthen bone and muscle function, reduce external force contusion damage. ▲