experts interviewed: He Li
Dr. Zhong Kai
Recently, the International Center for research on cancer (IARC) has added a new category of carcinogens to the list of carcinogens. Processed meat has become a grade 1 carcinogen (which has been reported in detail in the 13th edition of our newspaper, 960 issue). Red meat is classified as a class 2A carcinogen, which means that it has been proved to have a clear carcinogenic effect in animal experiments, but has been studied by people The evidence is also limited for carcinogens. Many readers have said that it can be done to eat less processed meat products such as ham, but red meat was the food they had to eat every day before. Can they still eat it in the future? How to eat to minimize the risk? In this issue, “life times” invited experts to give you a detailed interpretation.
in the view of experts, eating red meat, risk and income coexist. Generally speaking, red meat refers to the meat of all mammals, such as pork, beef, mutton, rabbit meat and so on. Most of them are red before cooking, so they are called red meat. According to the IARC report, the cancers related to consumption of red meat and pickled meat are mainly rectal cancer and colon cancer, and some pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer may also be related to this. Eating more than 100 grams of red meat a day increases the risk of cancer by 17 percent, according to the report. Researchers from the school of public health at Harvard University have found that early death is closely related to eating red meat. Research data show that eating about 85 grams of red meat such as pigs, cattle and sheep every day increases the risk of premature death by 13%.
have two sides to everything. Food is the same. Although red meat has various risks, it does not mean that eating it will definitely cause cancer. Red meat also has some health benefits. He Li, a researcher at the Institute of nutrition and health of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and prevention, told reporters that red meat is rich in high-quality protein. At the same time, iron and phosphorus are rich, especially iron, which mainly exists in heme iron, which is a high-quality source of dietary iron. In addition, red meat is also a good source of vitamin A, vitamin D and B vitamins. Zhong Kai, a doctor of food safety, said that although it is difficult to accurately calculate the balance point between risk and benefit, it is almost certain that eating less does not harm, otherwise countries around the world would have kicked it out of the dietary guidelines.
experts said that to eat red meat healthily, we need to pay attention to the following points.
should be the first choice. Generally speaking, the more delicious the meat, the higher the fat content, because most of the flavor substances are “contained” in the fat, and enough fat can bring tenderness and juicy taste to the meat. For example, the most popular streaky pork has a fat content of more than 60%. According to the data in the Chinese food composition table, the fat content of 100g pork chop is as high as 23.1g. He Li suggested that the daily diet should try to choose lean meat, such as sirloin. Eat less meat with high fat content, such as streaky pork and fat beef, and don’t sacrifice health for taste. Second, control the intake of red meat. According to the dietary pagoda of Chinese residents, the recommended amount of livestock and poultry meat per day for adults is 1-1.5 Liang. The world cancer research foundation once recommended that the public should not eat more than 500 grams of red meat a week, that is, to control it within 70 grams a day, or 1.4 taels. At present, the average daily consumption of pig, beef and mutton for urban residents in China is about 1-2 Liang. In big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, there may be more. However, compared with the average daily consumption level of 4 taels for Americans, we are still healthy, but for some people, we need to reduce the intake of red meat. On this basis, it is suggested to mix with chicken, duck and fish.
third, they usually cook at low temperature. A study by the University of Southern California and the California Institute for cancer prevention found that red meat cooked at high temperatures, especially fried red meat, could increase the risk of prostate cancer by 40%. Therefore, try to choose the way of cooking and stewing, avoid frying, frying and baking. In addition to steaming and stewing, he Li suggested that the meat can also be made into meat stuffing, which can be used to make steamed buns, dumplings, meat cakes and balls. In addition, although the braised pork, beef with soy sauce and pickled elbows, which are often made in families, will not be salted with nitrite, which is of high safety, it is necessary to reduce salt in the process of making. Moreover, due to the high fat content of braised pork and sauced pork, we should also try to eat it. As long as a good amount is maintained, daily consumption is safe.
fourth, eat out, order some light and refreshing dishes as much as possible, avoid pickled and fried dishes. If you have to order meat, you should choose fried dishes cooked with lean meat, such as Shredded Mushroom, shredded agaric, shredded radish, etc.; try not to order fatty meat and meat roasted by open fire, such as braised pork, roast mutton kebabs, etc.
fifth, meat should be bought and eaten immediately, and it is best to freeze it for no more than one month. It is better to eat fresh meat. In the frozen state, although there will not be a large number of bacteria in meat, but once frozen, it will be easier to breed bacteria than fresh meat. Therefore, the meat should not be frozen again after thawing. The low temperature in the freezer can prevent the proliferation of bacteria, but it can not completely prevent the oxidation of fat and protein, and also can not completely prevent the deterioration of meat quality. So. Frozen meat in the refrigerator is best eaten within a month.
finally, he Li reminded that to meet the taste buds and ensure intestinal health, one is to adjust the eating habits. Drink more water, eat more Cereals, Cereals, potatoes and beans, and at the same time ensure a kilogram of vegetables and half a kilogram of fruits every day. The rich dietary fiber in these foods is conducive to intestinal health; second, pay attention to the adjustment of lifestyle, such as moderate exercise, and develop good defecation habits. ▲