life times specially invited fan Zhihong, associate professor of School of food science and nutrition engineering, China Agricultural University, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages and applicability of common cooking methods one by one.

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choose crisp and tender vegetables

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raw vegetables, which can retain 100% of vitamins and minerals, as well as a variety of active health care factors, such as the lipid lowering ingredients in onion, the anti ulcer ingredients in Chinese cabbage, and the sterilization components in garlic.

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may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and parasites, pesticide residues and excessive oxalic acid in raw vegetables. Moreover, the varieties of raw vegetables are limited and the consumption is difficult to reach the standard of one kilogram per day, especially green leafy vegetables. Patients with gastrointestinal sensitivity, chronic diarrhea and intestinal infection may also have discomfort when eating raw vegetables.

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cooking suggestions: crisp and tender texture, low oxalic acid and tannin content of vegetables, such as lettuce, gesory, cucumber, tomato, purple cabbage and so on, are more suitable to eat raw. It is suggested that vegetables from reliable sources should be selected when eating raw vegetables, and they should be cleaned before eating.

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fast frying is the key to control the oil temperature. The

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stir frying is a heating method with oil heat transfer as the main part and direct heat transfer as the auxiliary method. Its cooking speed is faster, the loss of water-soluble vitamins is usually less than that of stewing method, but more oil will greatly increase the fat content of dishes and cause the loss of carotenoids.

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cooking suggestions: Fry fast, so it is best to use crisp, tender and easy cooked ingredients. If the material is old and hard, you can cut it into thin or small pieces, or blanch it in advance.

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control oil temperature is also very important, when the oil is about to smoke, but not smoke, the best time to put vegetables. You can use the following method to check the oil temperature: put the scallion in first, when it has not changed color, and there are many small bubbles around, it indicates that the oil temperature is appropriate. The temperature of

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oven can be controlled below 200 ℃. If the food is wrapped with tin foil, the local temperature can be kept at about 100 ℃. It can make the food heated evenly, retain nutrients well and produce less harmful substances. It is also a recommended cooking method.

however, it is not recommended to use open fire carbon to bake food (such as kebabs), because the temperature can not be controlled, local heating over 200 ℃ will produce heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carcinogens, and the surface of the baked food will also be contaminated with a large number of smoke particles containing carcinogens. Barbecue smoke itself produces a lot of PM2.5, coupled with benzopyrene and other carcinogens attached to the smoke, which is very harmful to lung health.

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cooking suggestions: baking is suitable for all ingredients, but rhizome vegetables and meat are more delicious. It’s better not to barbecue over an open fire.

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are rich in microwave oil. Do not use

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foods rich in water, such as porridge, noodles, milk, vegetables, etc., which are more suitable for microwave heating. The microwave heating efficiency is high, and the cooking time is correspondingly shortened, so the loss of vitamin C, flavonoids and chlorophyll is small, and there is almost no problem of water loss, and there will not be too much oil in the dishes.

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have been rumors of “microwave oven cancer”, but no research has confirmed it. The main disadvantage of microwave cooking is that the aroma is slightly insufficient, and there is no effect of coke and tenderness inside. The cooking suggestions of

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are as follows: foods with more fat but less moisture (such as cheese, nuts, streaky pork, etc.), foods with film (such as egg yolk) or shell (such as eggs), dry food, food requiring crispy surface, infant milk powder and infant supplementary food should not be heated by microwave.

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are suitable for meat and bean cereals. Compared with normal pressure cooking,

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are not only simple and quick to cook, but also because the pot is airtight and no longer in contact with the outside air after exhausting or pressurizing, it is conducive to the preservation of antioxidant active ingredients in food materials, and the degree of fat oxidation is low. The loss of vitamins is similar to or slightly less than that of beef, cereals and beans, which require a long time of stewing under atmospheric pressure. Because the cooking temperature of domestic pressure cooker does not exceed 120 ℃, it does not produce any carcinogens, so it is very healthy and convenient.

cooking suggestion: when using pressure cooker, safety is very important. Before use, carefully check whether the air hole of the valve seat of the pot cover is unblocked and whether the safety plug is in good condition; the food in the pot shall not exceed 2 / 3 of the capacity; when the temperature is heated to the pressure limiting valve, it shall be cooled immediately.

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steaming food materials should be spread as flat as possible. Steaming

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is almost the most comprehensive cooking method to retain nutrition. There is no loss of nutrients dissolved into the soup during cooking and blanching, and there is no excessive temperature when frying. The heating temperature is not more than 100 degrees Celsius, so the thermal decomposition loss is small, the oxidation loss is also small, there is no oil fume, and there is no excessive oil.

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use steaming method to make cold dishes. You can steam the materials first and then pour them with juice. For example, vegetables and cabbage can be steamed and then poured with scallion and soy sauce. For hot dishes, there are different heating methods such as steaming in soup, steaming in separate water, steaming in gas pot, steaming with soy sauce, steaming with flour, steaming with glutinous rice and steaming with stuffing. Cooking suggestions of

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: many people don’t know much about steaming. In fact, meat and vegetable dishes can be steamed. It takes time to steam green leafy vegetables to keep their green color. The vegetable stall should be placed on a porcelain plate, a leaky basket or a straw woven steamer, and some of it should be paved as far as possible so that the steam can be contacted. It is put into the steamer of SAIC. The steaming time is generally 2-5 minutes according to the amount of vegetables and the firepower.

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boil a small amount of boiling water for many times.

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boiling water cooking includes cooking, boiling, blanching, etc., relying on water to heat the food. The boiling temperature is 100 ℃, although no harmful substances will be produced, a large number of soluble substances will dissolve into the water during the boiling process, such as vitamin C, vitamin B2 and folic acid. If you do not drink the soup, the loss of these nutrients is greater.

cooking advice: boiling is suitable for all foods. Tender ingredients such as leafy vegetables can be blanched for a short time,

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